Replacing PAPS: In vitro phase II sulfation of steroids with the liver S9 fraction employing ATP and sodium sulfate

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EarlyView Article

  • Published: Jul 18, 2017
  • Author: Sumudu A. Weththasinghe, Christopher C. Waller, Han Ling Fam, Bradley J. Stevenson, Adam T. Cawley, Malcolm D. McLeod
  • Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

In vitro technologies provide the capacity to study drug metabolism where in vivo studies are precluded due to ethical or financial constraints. The metabolites generated by in vitro studies can assist anti‐doping laboratories to develop protocols for the detection of novel substances that would otherwise evade routine screening efforts. In addition, professional bodies such as the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) currently permit the use of in‐vitro‐derived reference materials for confirmation purposes providing additional impetus for the development of cost effective in vitro metabolism platforms. In this work, alternative conditions for in vitro phase II sulfation using human, equine or canine liver S9 fraction were developed, with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and sodium sulfate in place of the expensive and unstable co‐factor 3′‐phosphoadenosine‐5′‐phosphosulfate (PAPS), and employed for the generation of six representative steroidal sulfates. Using these conditions, the equine in vitro phase II metabolism of the synthetic or so‐called designer steroid furazadrol ([1′,2′]isoxazolo[4′,5′:2,3]‐5α‐androstan‐17β‐ol) was investigated, with ATP and Na2SO4 providing comparable metabolism to reactions using PAPS. The major in vitro metabolites of furazadrol matched those observed in a previously reported equine in vivo study. Finally, the equine in vitro phase II metabolism of the synthetic steroid superdrol (methasterone, 17β‐hydroxy‐2α,17α‐dimethyl‐5α‐androstan‐3‐one) was performed as a prediction of the in vivo metabolic profile.

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