Recent advances in analytical methods for the therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs

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EarlyView Article

  • Published: Sep 28, 2017
  • Author: Yu Zhang, Rui Zhang
  • Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis


Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs) with a narrow therapeutic index is an increasingly popular tool for minimizing drug toxicity while maximizing the prevention of graft loss and organ rejection. This review focuses on trends regarding analytical methods for the TDM of ISDs since 2011. The five most commonly prescribed immunosuppressive medications are critically reviewed: cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, sirolimus (rapamycin), everolimus, and mycophenolic acid. This review introduces the general background of TDM and ISDs and presents the recent developments in using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) and immunoassays for the TDM of ISDs. Finally, a future perspective for these analytical methods is briefly discussed.

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