SERS , Raman , and DFT analyses of fentanyl and carfentanil: Toward detection of trace samples

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EarlyView Article

  • Published: Aug 24, 2017
  • Author: Jennifer Leonard, Abed Haddad, Omar Green, Ronald L. Birke, Thomas Kubic, Ali Kocak, John R. Lombardi
  • Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy


We examine the normal Raman and the surface‐enhanced Raman spectra of fentanyl and carfentanil. As an aid in the assignment of the spectral lines, we present a density functional theory calculation. Although Raman spectroscopy is a valuable analytic tool for the detection and identification of molecular species, it is a weak effect and requires specialized equipment for detection of trace samples. We therefore turn to surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy, which utilizes the large enhancement of the Raman signal endowed by proximity to silver or gold nanoparticles. The enhancement factor (EF) obtained in this experiment is ≥1.6 × 105. This points the way towards future development of a simple and sensitive technique for the detection of analytes in trace quantities, particularly for wider application in forensic science.

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