Characterization and stratification of prostate lesions based on comprehensive multiparametric MRI using detailed whole‐mount histopathology as a reference standard

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EarlyView Article

  • Published: Sep 29, 2017
  • Author: Olga Starobinets, Jeffry P. Simko, Kyle Kuchinsky, John Kornak, Peter R. Carroll, Kirsten L. Greene, John Kurhanewicz, Susan M. Noworolski
  • Journal: NMR in Biomedicine

The purpose of this study was to characterize prostate cancer (PCa) based on multiparametric MR (mpMR) measures derived from MRI, diffusion, spectroscopy, and dynamic contrast‐enhanced (DCE) MRI, and to validate mpMRI in detecting PCa and predicting PCa aggressiveness by correlating mpMRI findings with whole‐mount histopathology. Seventy‐eight men with untreated PCa received 3 T mpMR scans prior to radical prostatectomy. Cancerous regions were outlined, graded, and cancer amount estimated on whole‐mount histology. Regions of interest were manually drawn on T2‐weighted images based on histopathology. Logistic regression was used to identify optimal combinations of parameters for the peripheral zone and transition zone to separate: (i) benign from malignant tissues; (ii) Gleason score (GS) ≤3 + 3 disease from ≥GS3 + 4; and (iii) ≤ GS3 + 4 from ≥GS4 + 3 cancers. The performance of the models was assessed using repeated fourfold cross‐validation. Additionally, the performance of the logistic regression models created under the assumption that one or more modality has not been acquired was evaluated. Logistic regression models yielded areas under the curve (AUCs) of 1.0 and 0.99 when separating benign from malignant tissues in the peripheral zone and the transition zone, respectively. Within the peripheral zone, combining choline, maximal enhancement slope, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and citrate measures for separating ≤GS3 + 3 from ≥GS3 + 4 PCa yielded AUC = 0.84. Combining creatine, choline, and washout slope yielded AUC = 0.81 for discriminating ≤GS3 + 4 from ≥GS4 + 3 disease. Within the transition zone, combining washout slope, ADC, and creatine yielded AUC = 0.93 for discriminating ≤GS3 + 3 and ≥GS3 + 4 cancers. When separating ≤GS3 + 4 from ≥GS4 + 3 PCa, combining choline and washout slope yielded AUC = 0.92. MpMRI provides excellent separation between benign tissues and PCa, and across PCa tissues of different aggressiveness. The final models prominently feature spectroscopy and DCE‐derived metrics, underlining their value within a comprehensive mpMRI examination.

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