Surface analytical approaches to reliably characterize lithium ion battery electrodes

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EarlyView Article

  • Published: Oct 25, 2017
  • Author: R. Azmi, V. Trouillet, M. Strafela, S. Ulrich, H. Ehrenberg, M. Bruns
  • Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

Active Li‐ion battery materials are typically characterized using X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy when regarding chemical state elucidation. This work presents a multiplet‐splitting approach comprising in minimum 3 third‐row transition metals, namely, Mn, Co, and Ni, to improve the results in comparison to peak barycenter or single symmetric Voigt profile approaches. The achieved X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy 2p templates in particular address the complex peak structures consisting of significant photoelectron multiplet splitting, shake‐up and plasmon loss features, and additional Auger and photoelectron overlaps, inevitable also for a reliable quantification. To separate from topography effects and contributions of the electrode's binder and conductive carbon in powder electrodes, the developed procedure in a first attempt was successfully transferred to novel radio frequency magnetron sputtered Li‐Ni‐Co‐Mn‐O thin films, designed for all‐solid‐state Li‐ion batteries. In all cases, special care was taken with respect to air sensitivity, contamination during sample handling, and probable method induced sample decomposition.

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