Journal Highlight: Acute phase proteins as promising biomarkers: Perspectives and limitations for human and veterinary medicine

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  • Published: Dec 19, 2016
  • Author: spectroscopyNOW
  • Channels: Proteomics
thumbnail image: Journal Highlight: Acute phase proteins as promising biomarkers: Perspectives and limitations for human and veterinary medicine
Current reviews on acute phase proteins and their use as biomarkers are discussed with examples of their general, extended and differential extrahepatic expression, leading to the conclusion that their diagnostic value should be reassessed.

Acute phase proteins as promising biomarkers: Perspectives and limitations for human and veterinary medicine

Proteomics - Clinical Applications, 2016, 10, 1077-1092
Wieland Schrödl, Rita Büchler, Sindy Wendler, Petra Reinhold, Petra Muckova, Johanna Reindl and Heidrun Rhode

Abstract: Acute phase proteins (APPs) are highly conserved plasma proteins that are increasingly secreted by the liver in response to a variety of injuries, independently of their location and cause. APPs favor the systemic regulation of defense, coagulation, proteolysis, and tissue repair. Various APPs have been applied as general diagnostic parameters for a long time. Through proteomic techniques, more and more APPs have been discovered to be differentially altered. Since they are not consistently explainable by a stereotypic hepatic expression of sets of APPs, most of these results have unfortunately been neglected or attributed to the nonspecificity of the acute phase reaction. Moreover, it appears that various extrahepatic tissues are also able to express APPs. These extrahepatic APPs show focally specific roles in tissue homeostasis and repair and are released primarily into interstitial and distal fluids. Since these focal proteins might leak into the circulatory system, mixtures of hepatic and extrahepatic APP species can be expected in blood. Hence, a selective alteration of parts of APPs might be expected. There are several hints on multiple molecular forms and fragments of tissue-derived APPs. These differences offer the chance for multiple selective determinations. Thus, specific proteoforms might indeed serve as tissue-specific disease indicators.

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