New drug testing technology could screen 'every Olympic athlete every day'

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  • Published: Feb 9, 2018
  • Source: University of Waterloo
  • Channels: Sample Preparation / Base Peak

It will now be easier, faster and cheaper to catch athletes who take performance-enhancing drugs.

A new way of testing blood and urine developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo in Canada cuts down the time required to analyze samples from 30 minutes to just 55 seconds. The researchers are working to reduce it even further, to 10 seconds per sample, by using a fully automated workflow.

"That's fast enough to screen every Olympic athlete every day," said Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, a postdoctoral fellow in Waterloo's Pawliszyn Research Group.

When it comes to large-scale drug screening, cost is also a factor. The group is working with industry to reduce the cost from an average of between $20 to $100 per sample to just a few dollars.

As described in a paper in Bioanalysis, the more efficient process is made possible through the development of a rapid on-site screening technology called coated blade-spray mass spectrometry. This can detect more than 100 drugs in just one drop of blood or a few microlitres of urine on a coated sample strip at the parts per billion level. That's like detecting a sugar cube dissolved in an Olympic sized swimming pool.

"If you know you're being continuously watched, you're less likely to cheat in the first place," says Gómez-Ríos, who cites the psychological advantage of having the chemical analysis take place in front of the athlete on a regular basis.

The technology utilizes a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) probe to extract the drugs from samples of blood or urine. After a simple washing step, this probe is then placed directly in front of the mass spectrometer for analysis.

Coupled with recent advances in analytical instrumentation, which also includes Direct Analysis in Real Time and Open-Port Probe mass spectrometry, Pawliszyn's SPME methods are poised to revolutionize drug testing everywhere from sports competitions and roadside checkpoints to emergency triage and workplaces.

According to Gómez-Ríos, coated blade spray-MS reduces tedious sample preparation to a single step and, in the near future, it will be interfaced to a simplified mass spectrometer that has been shrunken to the size of a PC desktop and can be set up anywhere.

"The important thing here is to avoid false negatives," says Gómez-Ríos. "That would be a disaster." Under such a screening regime, athletes who test positive in any way, for a slight misstep or full-on cheating, would then be followed up with a full analysis by standard methods.

"The idea is not to do a full analysis with every sample, only the positive ones," says Nathaly Reyes-Garces, a postdoctoral fellow who helped develop the protocol. "Coated Blade Spray has demonstrated to provide reliable results for different compounds in the concentration range required by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A sample that shows a positive result can then be subjected to full confirmatory analysis."

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