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Optimization of STR locus enrichment for STR profiling of fragmented DNA

Published: Oct 1, 2014

Author(s): Seon‐Kyu Ham, Se‐Yong Kim, Jang‐Won Ahn, Bo Young Seo, Kwang‐Man Woo, Cheol Yong Choi, Seung‐Hwan Lee

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

DNA degradation is a major obstacle in gaining an accurate profile with standard DNA typing technology. Although alternative genotyping strategies such as mini‐STRs and SNPs have proven to be more successful in profiling degraded DNA, these approaches also have limitations. Here, we show that locus enrichment by hybridization of degraded genomic DNA with an STR locus‐specific biotinylated oligonucleotide is a powerful approach to overcome...

Read More thumbnail image: Optimization of STR locus enrichment for STR profiling of fragmented DNA

Discovery of highly specific protein markers for the identification of biological stains

Published: Oct 1, 2014

Author(s): Kevin M. Legg, Roger Powell, Nichole Reisdorph, Rick Reisdorph, Phillip B. Danielson

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

DNA profiling has transformed the field of forensic biology by making it possible to individualize biological stains. The identification of the stain itself, however, continues to present forensic serologists with significant challenges. Current antibody‐ and enzyme activity‐based assays yield only presumptive results as detection in nontarget body fluids or cross‐reactivity with nonhuman sources have both been well documented. For other...

Read More thumbnail image: Discovery of highly specific protein markers for the identification of biological stains

Assessment of high resolution melting analysis as a potential SNP genotyping technique in forensic casework

Published: Oct 1, 2014

Author(s): Samantha J. Venables, Bhavik Mehta, Runa Daniel, Simon J. Walsh, Roland A. H. van Oorschot, Dennis McNevin

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a simple, cost effective, closed tube SNP genotyping technique with high throughput potential. The effectiveness of HRM for forensic SNP genotyping was assessed with five commercially available HRM kits evaluated on the ViiA™ 7 Real Time PCR instrument. Four kits performed satisfactorily against forensically relevant criteria. One was further assessed to determine the sensitivity, reproducibility,...

Read More thumbnail image: Assessment of high resolution melting analysis as a potential SNP genotyping technique in forensic casework

A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers

Published: Oct 1, 2014

Author(s): Sara Santos, Manuela Oliveira, António Amorim, Barbara Asch

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification...

Read More thumbnail image: A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine  Vitis vinifera L_ varieties using STR markers

Enantioseparation and thermodynamic study of naphthalene derivatives, new melatoninergic agonists, on coated amylose [ tris ( S )‐1‐phenylethylcarbamate] stationary phase. Transposition to preparative scale

Published: Oct 1, 2014

Author(s): Elodie Landagaray, Saïd Yous, Claude Vaccher, Emmanuelle Lipka

Journal: Biomedical Chromatography

ABSTRACT This work reports a high‐performance liquid chromatography normal‐phase methodology to elucidate enantiomers of naphthalene derivatives, evaluated as melatoninergic agonists. For this purpose four different polysaccharide based chiral stationary phases were evaluated, namely Chiralcel OD‐H (cellulose tris‐3,5‐dimethylphenylcarbamate), Chiralcel OJ (cellulose tris‐methylbenzoate), Chiralpak AD (amylose tris‐3,5‐dimethylphenylcarbamate)...

Read More thumbnail image: Enantioseparation and thermodynamic study of naphthalene derivatives new melatoninergic agonists on coated amylose  tris  S 1phenylethylcarbamate stationary phase_ Transposition to preparative scale

Identification of two Ag‐2,2′:6′,2″‐terpyridine surface species on Ag nanoparticle surfaces by excitation wavelength dependence of SERS spectra and factor analysis: evidence for chemical mechanism contribution to SERS of Ag(0)–tpy

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Ivana Šloufová, Marek Procházka, Blanka Vlčková

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Measurement and interpretation of the excitation wavelength dependence of surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of molecules chemisorbed on plasmonic, e.g. Ag nanoparticle (NP) surfaces, are of principal importance for revealing the charge transfer (CT) mechanism contribution to the overall SERS enhancement. SERS spectra, their excitation wavelength dependence in the 445–780‐nm range and factor analysis (FA) were used for the...

Read More thumbnail image: Identification of two Ag2262terpyridine surface species on Ag nanoparticle surfaces by excitation wavelength dependence of SERS spectra and factor analysis evidence for chemical mechanism contribution to SERS of Ag0tpy

SERS studies of DNA nucleobases using new silver poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites as analytical platforms

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Paula C. Pinheiro, Sara Fateixa, Helena I. S. Nogueira, Tito Trindade

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

The implementation of polymer‐based composites provides a plausible alternative to develop efficient, handy and scalable substrates for surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) aiming the widespread use of this technique for chemical analysis and molecular sensing. In this research, new poly(methylmethacrylate) based nanocomposites for SERS were prepared by in situ miniemulsion polymerization in the presence of organically capped metal silver...

Read More thumbnail image: SERS studies of DNA nucleobases using new silver polymethyl methacrylate nanocomposites as analytical platforms

Redshift of large wave vector LO phonon modes in wurtzite semiconductors due to the presence of free charge carriers

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Christian Kranert, Rüdiger Schmidt‐Grund, Marius Grundmann

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

We report on the influence of free charge carriers on longitudinal optical (LO) phonons with large wave vectors in wurtzite semiconductors, which are observed by Raman scattering with excitation photon energy above the band gap. Charge carriers induced by doping or optical excitation result in Landau damping of these phonon modes. This causes a redshift of the observed LO Raman lines, which can be described by the same theoretical...

Read More thumbnail image: Redshift of large wave vector LO phonon modes in wurtzite semiconductors due to the presence of free charge carriers

In situ confocal micro‐Raman spectroscopic investigation of rearrangement kinetics and phase evolution of UHMWPE during annealing

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Guoxu He, Peidong Lu

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene was investigated using in situ confocal micro‐Raman spectroscopy during annealing at 110.0 °C. Based on the Raman spectra, crystalline, amorphous, and all‐trans noncrystalline fractions were recognized to evaluate rearrangement kinetics during isothermal annealing at 110.0 °C and phase evolution during cooling from 110.0 to 30.0 °C. For the crystalline fraction, a substantial increase from 0.600 ± 0.001 to ...

Read More thumbnail image: In situ confocal microRaman spectroscopic investigation of rearrangement kinetics and phase evolution of UHMWPE during annealing

Vector potential photoelectron microscopy: hyperspectral image processing and super‐resolution applied to images of a Ca–Al alloy intermetallic phase distribution

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Raymond Browning

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

Vector potential photoelectron microscopy (VPPEM) produces four dimensional hyper‐spectral data, and image processing is an integral part of the experimental technique. VPPEM is a new class of instrument, and this is the first discussion of some of the data reduction techniques that have been found effective. The point spread function of VPPEM is multidimensional with a high‐frequency component. Although this high‐frequency component is a...

Read More thumbnail image: Vector potential photoelectron microscopy hyperspectral image processing and superresolution applied to images of a CaAl alloy intermetallic phase distribution

Growth of palladium nanoparticles on nanostructured highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Z. Yuan, M.C. Hanf, R. Stephan, F. Dulot, E. Denys, A. Florentin, W. Harbich, P. Wetzel

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

We report on the growth of palladium nanoparticles on the basal plane of as‐cleaved highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples, and on CO2 ion sputtered nanostructured HOPG surfaces. The morphology of Pd nanostructures grown at room temperature is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The STM observations indicate that the morphology of the Pd films is strongly dependent on the HOPG surface. Stabilized Pd particles...

Read More thumbnail image: Growth of palladium nanoparticles on nanostructured highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

Comparative XPS analysis of passive layers composition formed on AISI 304 L SS after standard and high‐current density electropolishing

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Krzysztof Rokosz, Frank Simon, Tadeusz Hryniewicz, Sławomir Rzadkiewicz

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

In the paper, there are described chemical compositions of passive surface layers formed on AISI 304 L (EN 1.4307) stainless steel after standard (EP50; i = 50 A/dm2) and high‐current density (EP1000; i = 1000 A/dm2) electropolishing. For the studies, a mixture of orthophosphoric and sulfuric acid electrolyte in proportion 1:4 was used. The survey and high‐resolution spectra of Cr 2p, Fe 2p, S 2p, P 2p, Ni 2p and C 1s are presented. On the basis of...

Read More thumbnail image: Comparative XPS analysis of passive layers composition formed on AISI 304L SS after standard and highcurrent density electropolishing

ToF‐SIMS as a tool for mapping reaction products of coupled dissolution–precipitation processes at mineral grain surfaces

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): S. Rinnen, J. Gröger‐Trampe, C. Ostertag‐Henning, H. F. Arlinghaus

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

In this paper, time‐of‐flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF‐SIMS) was investigated as a tool for analyzing changes on mineral grains (siderite and ankerite) caused by dissolution and precipitation processes. Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration is a technique investigated for its possible employment in the reduction of the amount of anthropogenic CO2 gas emitted into the atmosphere. Deep saline aquifers are one option for storing CO2 gas...

Read More thumbnail image: ToFSIMS as a tool for mapping reaction products of coupled dissolutionprecipitation processes at mineral grain surfaces

Storing matter technique performed in the analytical chamber of a quadrupole SIMS analyser

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): P. Konarski, M. Miśnik, A. Zawada, H. H. Brongersma

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

The storing matter technique is applied in quadrupole type SIMS analyser. Its analytical chamber is additionally equipped with a special magnetically driven x, Θ, UHV manipulator applied for transfer of the metal ring collector. The sample holder, horizontally positioned, carries the analysed sample as well as a watch like rotation mechanism carrying a continuously rotating collector of 1 inch diameter at a rate of 1 rev. per hour. The...

Read More thumbnail image: Storing matter technique performed in the analytical chamber of a quadrupole SIMS analyser

XPS depth analysis of metal/polymer multilayer by vacuum electrospray droplet impact

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Yuji Sakai, Rio Takaishi, Satoshi Ninomiya, Kenzo Hiraoka

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

Recently, the vacuum electrospray droplet impact (V‐EDI) was developed as a cluster ion beam source in our laboratory. In this work, V‐EDI was applied to polymers [polyimide (PI) and polycarbonate (PC)] and metal/polymer multilayer samples (Au/PI and Au/PC). We compared the etching performance of V‐EDI with that obtained by the conventional atmospheric‐pressure EDI (A‐EDI). The nonselective etching was observed for organic and also...

Read More thumbnail image: XPS depth analysis of metalpolymer multilayer by vacuum electrospray droplet impact

Surface structure and photoluminescence properties of AZO thin films on polymer substrates

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Nihan Akin, Yunus Ozen, H. Ibrahim Efkere, Mehmet Cakmak, Suleyman Ozcelik

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

Al‐doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. The effects of film thickness on the surface structure and the photoluminescence properties of the films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and room temperature photoluminescence (PL)....

Read More thumbnail image: Surface structure and photoluminescence properties of AZO thin films on polymer substrates

Effect of TiO 2 –Ti and TiO 2 –TiN composite coatings on corrosion behavior of NiTi alloy

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): H. Maleki‐Ghaleh, J. Khalil‐Allafi, E. Aghaie, M. H. Siadati

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

Two kinds of biocompatible coatings were produced in order to improve the corrosion resistance of nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy. A titanium oxide–titanium (TiO2–Ti) composite was coated on NiTi alloy using electrophoretic method. After the coating process, the samples were heat‐treated at 1000 °C in two tube furnaces, the first one in argon atmosphere and the second one in nitrogen atmosphere at 1000 °C. The morphology and phase analysis...

Read More thumbnail image: Effect of TiO 2 Ti and TiO 2 TiN composite coatings on corrosion behavior of NiTi alloy

Comprehensive two‐dimensional gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry: Recent evolution and current trends

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Peter Q. Tranchida, Flavio A. Franchina, Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello

Journal: Mass Spectrometry Reviews

The present contribution is focused on the evolution and current trends of comprehensive two‐dimensional gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC × GC‐MS), with respect to a review that described this specific methodology published at the beginning of 2008 (Mondello et al., 2008). In fact, since then there has been considerable evolution in the MS field, certainly exceeding that observed in GC × GC. In particular,...

Read More thumbnail image: Comprehensive twodimensional gas chromatographymass spectrometry Recent evolution and current trends

New agar microspheres for the separation and purification of natural products

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Chunling Ge, Yu Hu, Fan Zhang, Yongqin Lv, Tianwei Tan

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

A new type of agar chromatography media has been prepared with a yield over 80% using a water‐in‐oil emulsion technique. These microspheres have regular spherical shapes and particle diameters in the range 40–165 μm (average ∼90 μm). Cross‐linking of the resulting agar microspheres with epichlorohydrin and 1,4‐butanediol diglycidyl ether enhanced their mechanical and thermal stability. The alkaline conditions used during the cross‐linking...

Read More thumbnail image: New agar microspheres for the separation and purification of natural products

Development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of etilefrine and oxilofrine in equine blood plasma and urine

Published: Sep 30, 2014

Author(s): Noel Kong, Rong Yi, Sarah Zhao, Jasmeet Sandhu, Geoffrey Lam, Devan Loganathan, Barbara Morrissey

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

A sensitive hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous detection and quantification of etilefrine and oxilofrine in equine blood plasma and urine. The method is highly sensitive and specific with good precision and accuracy. In plasma the limit of detection and limit of quantification are 0.03 and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively, for both...

Read More thumbnail image: Development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of etilefrine and oxilofrine in equine blood plasma and urine
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