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Recent (2000–2015) developments in the analysis of minor unknown natural products based on characteristic fragment information using LC–MS

Published: Jun 24, 2016

Author(s): Tian Cai, Ze‐Qin Guo, Xiao‐Ying Xu, Zhi‐Jun Wu

Journal: Mass Spectrometry Reviews

Liquid chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC–MS) has been widely used in natural product analysis. Global detection and identification of nontargeted components are desirable in natural product research, for example, in quality control of Chinese herbal medicine. Nontargeted components analysis continues to expand to exciting life science application domains such as metabonomics. With this background, the present...

Read More thumbnail image: Recent 20002015 developments in the analysis of minor unknown natural products based on characteristic fragment information using LCMS

Time‐course measurements of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of pharmaceutical products

Published: Jun 24, 2016

Author(s): Kenji Kuwayama, Hajime Miyaguchi, Yuko T. Iwata, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Kenji Tsujikawa, Tadashi Yamamuro, Hiroki Segawa, Hiroyuki Inoue

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Hair and nails are often used to prove long‐term intake of drugs in forensic drug testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of drug testing using hair and nails and the feasibility of determining when drugs were ingested by measuring the time‐courses of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of various drugs. Healthy subjects ingested four pharmaceutical products containing eight...

Read More thumbnail image: Timecourse measurements of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of pharmaceutical products

Xenon elimination kinetics following brief exposure

Published: Jun 24, 2016

Author(s): Maximilian S. Schaefer, Thomas Piper, Hans Geyer, Julia Schneemann, Martin Neukirchen, Mario Thevis, Peter Kienbaum

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Xenon is a modern inhalative anaesthetic with a very low solubility in tissues providing rapid elimination and weaning from anaesthesia. Besides its anaesthetic properties, Xenon promotes the endogenous erythropoietin biosynthesis and thus has been enlisted as prohibited substance by the World Anti‐Doping Agency (WADA). For effective doping controls, knowledge about the elimination kinetics of Xenon and the duration of traceability are of...

Read More thumbnail image: Xenon elimination kinetics following brief exposure

Simultaneous quantification of major cannabinoids and metabolites in human urine and plasma by HPLC‐MS/MS and enzyme‐alkaline hydrolysis

Published: Jun 24, 2016

Author(s): Oier Aizpurua‐Olaizola, Iratxe Zarandona, Laura Ortiz, Patricia Navarro, Nestor Etxebarria, Aresatz Usobiaga

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

A high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC‐MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its two metabolites 11‐hydroxy‐Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (11‐OH‐THC) and 11‐nor‐9‐carboxy‐Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC‐COOH), and four additional cannabinoids (cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and cannabinol (CBN)) in 1 mL of human urine and...

Read More thumbnail image: Simultaneous quantification of major cannabinoids and metabolites in human urine and plasma by HPLCMSMS and enzymealkaline hydrolysis

The abuse liability of the NMDA receptor antagonist‐benzodiazepine (tiletamine‐zolazepam) combination: evidence from clinical case reports and preclinical studies

Published: Jun 24, 2016

Author(s): June Bryan Peña, Jae Hoon Cheong

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

The tiletamine‐zolazepam (TZ) combination is an anaesthetic drug commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is an equal amount combination of tiletamine, a dissociative anaesthetic pharmacologically classified as an N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and zolazepam, a benzodiazepine tranquilizer. There are concerns regarding the safety profile of this drug combination due to incidents of human misuse/abuse. In this paper, we...

Read More thumbnail image: The abuse liability of the NMDA receptor antagonistbenzodiazepine tiletaminezolazepam combination evidence from clinical case reports and preclinical studies

Empirical evaluation of the inverse Gaussian regression residuals for the assessment of influential points

Published: Jun 24, 2016

Author(s): Muhammad Amin, Muhammad Amanullah, Muhammad Aslam

Journal: Journal of Chemometrics

Influential analysis is the main diagnostic process to obtain reliable regression results. Same is true for the generalized linear model. The present article empirically compares the performance of different residuals of the inverse Gaussian regression model to detect the influential points. The inverse Gaussian regression model residuals are further divided into two categories, that is, standardized and adjusted residuals. Cook's...

Read More thumbnail image: Empirical evaluation of the inverse Gaussian regression residuals for the assessment of influential points

Effect of cold atmospheric plasma treatment on hydrophilic properties of fluorosilicone rubber

Published: Jun 24, 2016

Author(s): Jiang‐yan Meng, Yun‐ying Wang, Yun‐ping Wang, Zu‐Qun Ding

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

Vulcanized fluorosilicone rubber for aviation was treated by argon and oxygen cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in order to modify its hydrophilic properties. The sample's chemical composition was analyzed by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The static contact angle, surface free energy, and adhesion strength were used to indicate the hydrophilic properties. Additionally, the surface morphologies of the specimens were observed by...

Read More thumbnail image: Effect of cold atmospheric plasma treatment on hydrophilic properties of fluorosilicone rubber

SIMS depth profiling of ‘frozen’ samples: in search of ultimate depth resolution regime

Published: Jun 24, 2016

Author(s): Y. Kudriavtsev, A. Hernandez, R. Asomoza, S. Gallardo, M. Lopez, K. Moiseev

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

We have performed secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling analysis of III–V based hetero‐structures at different target temperatures and found that both the surface segregation and surface roughness caused by ion sputtering can be radically reduced if the sample temperature is lowered to −150 °C. The depth profiling of ‘frozen’ samples can be a good alternative to sample rotation and oxygen flooding used for ultra‐low‐energy depth...

Read More thumbnail image: SIMS depth profiling of frozen samples in search of ultimate depth resolution regime

Surface modification of carbonyl iron powders with silicone polymers in supercritical fluid to get higher dispersibility and higher thermal stability

Published: Jun 24, 2016

Author(s): Ronghua Huang, Li Wang, Yin Lin, Yawei Dong, Dun You

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

The surface of carbonyl iron powder (CIP) was modified in supercritical fluid with silicone polymers containing reactive Si‐OCH3 groups. Fourier‐transformed infrared spectroscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X‐ray diffraction, and thermo gravimetric analysis were adopted to characterize CIP. The dispersibility of CIP in epoxy resin matrix was evaluated by castor oil absorption factor, dynamic viscosity, Mooney viscosity, and scanning electric...

Read More thumbnail image: Surface modification of carbonyl iron powders with silicone polymers in supercritical fluid to get higher dispersibility and higher thermal stability

Investigation of acetone, butanol and carbon dioxide as new breath biomarkers for convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

Published: Jun 23, 2016

Author(s): Ismail Bayrakli, Önder Öztürk, Hatice Akman

Journal: Biomedical Chromatography

Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate whether analysis of carbon dioxide, acetone and/or butanol present in human breath can be used as a simple and noninvasive diagnosis method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). For this purpose, overnight changes in the concentrations of these breath molecules were measured before and after sleep in 10 patients who underwent polysomnography and were diagnosed...

Read More thumbnail image: Investigation of acetone butanol and carbon dioxide as new breath biomarkers for convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

Quantitative determination of saroglitazar, a predominantly PPAR alpha agonist, in human plasma by a LC–MS/MS method utilizing electrospray ionization in a positive mode

Published: Jun 23, 2016

Author(s): Ashok Ghoghari, Ranjeet Dash, Chandrakant Bhatt, Kanchan Singh, Anil Jha, Harilal Patel, Rahul Gupta, Kevinkumar Kansagra, Nuggehally R. Srinivas

Journal: Biomedical Chromatography

Abstract A sensitive LC–MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantitation of saroglitazar using turboion spray interface with positive ion mode. A liquid–liquid extraction, with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether, was employed for the extraction of saroglitazar and glimepiride (IS) from human plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an ACE‐5, C18 (4.6 × 100 mm) column with a gradient mobile phase comprising...

Read More thumbnail image: Quantitative determination of saroglitazar a predominantly PPAR alpha agonist in human plasma by a LCMSMS method utilizing electrospray ionization in a positive mode

Reverse‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of sildenafil and N‐ desmethyl sildenafil in plasma of children

Published: Jun 23, 2016

Author(s): Bianca Maria Goffredo, Sara Cairoli, Alessia Vitale, Tiziana Corsetti, Anna Pastore

Journal: Biomedical Chromatography

Abstract Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of cGMP‐specific type 5 phosphodiesterase used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the adults. In pediatrics, PAH treatment options include the off‐label use of sildenafil. Sildenafil is metabolized in the liver by cytocrome P450 into its active metabolite, N‐desmethyl sildenafil. The determination of plasma levels of sildenafil and N‐desmethyl sildenafil could be useful for...

Read More thumbnail image: Reversephase highperformance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of sildenafil and N desmethyl sildenafil in plasma of children

Sequential protein extraction as an efficient method for improved proteome coverage in larvae of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

Published: Jun 23, 2016

Author(s): Waldo G. Nuez‐Ortín, Chris G. Carter, Peter D. Nichols, Richard Wilson

Journal: PROTEOMICS

Understanding diet‐ and environmentally induced physiological changes in fish larvae is a major goal for the aquaculture industry. Proteomic analysis of whole fish larvae comprising multiple tissues offers considerable potential but is challenging due to the very large dynamic range of protein abundance. To extend the coverage of the larval phase of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) proteome, we applied a two‐step sequential extraction (SE) method,...

Read More thumbnail image: Sequential protein extraction as an efficient method for improved proteome coverage in larvae of Atlantic salmon  Salmo salar

Doubling down on phosphorylation as a variable peptide modification

Published: Jun 23, 2016

Author(s): Bret Cooper

Journal: PROTEOMICS

Some mass spectrometrists believe that searching for variable PTMs like phosphorylation of serine or threonine when using database‐search algorithms to interpret peptide tandem mass spectra will increase false‐positive matching. The basis for this is the premise that the algorithm compares a spectrum to both a nonphosphorylated peptide candidate and a phosphorylated candidate, which is double the number of candidates compared to a search...

Read More thumbnail image: Doubling down on phosphorylation as a variable peptide modification

Mass spectrometry of transferrin glycoforms to detect congenital disorders of glycosylation: Site‐specific profiles and pitfalls

Published: Jun 23, 2016

Author(s): Yoshinao Wada

Journal: PROTEOMICS

Mass spectrometry of transferrin is an established method for the detection and diagnosis of congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Transferrin is an 80 kDa glycoprotein and the glycoform at two N‐glycosylation sites is comprised of a di‐sialylated biantennary oligosaccharide as the major form and minor species with fucosylated or triantennary structures. Rapid CDG screening is carried out by MS of native transferrin. On the other hand, ...

Read More thumbnail image: Mass spectrometry of transferrin glycoforms to detect congenital disorders of glycosylation Sitespecific profiles and pitfalls

An aptamer folding‐based sensory platform decorated with nanoparticles for simple cocaine testing

Published: Jun 23, 2016

Author(s): Emine Guler, Guliz Bozokalfa, Bilal Demir, Zinar Pinar Gumus, Bahar Guler, Ebru Aldemir, Suna Timur, Hakan Coskunol

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

The consumption of illicit drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines is still a major health and social problem, creating an abuse in adults especially. Novel techniques which estimate the drug of abuse are needed for the detection of newly revealed psychoactive drugs. Herein, we have constructed a combinatorial platform by using quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as well as a functional aptamer which selectively...

Read More thumbnail image: An aptamer foldingbased sensory platform decorated with nanoparticles for simple cocaine testing

Therapeutic drug monitoring of cefepime with micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography: Assay improvement, quality assurance, and impact on patient drug levels

Published: Jun 22, 2016

Author(s): Regula Theurillat, Jeannine Joneli, Ursula Wanzenried, Jeannette Schiess, Monika Hurni, Thomas Weber, Parham Sendi, Wolfgang Thormann

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

The improvement and performance of a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography assay for cefepime in human serum and plasma with a 50 μm id fused‐silica capillary elongated from 40 to 60 cm is reported. Sample preparation with dodecylsulfate protein precipitation at pH 4.5, the pH 9.1 separation medium, and the applied voltage were as reported previously [16]. The change resulted in a significant lower current, higher resolution,...

Read More thumbnail image: Therapeutic drug monitoring of cefepime with micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography Assay improvement quality assurance and impact on patient drug levels

Metal–organic framework UiO‐67‐coated fiber for the solid‐phase microextraction of nitrobenzene compounds from water

Published: Jun 22, 2016

Author(s): Xiaohuan Zang, Xi Zhang, Qingyun Chang, Sen Li, Chun Wang, Zhi Wang

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

A sol–gel coating technique was applied for the preparation of a solid‐phase microextraction fiber by coating the metal–organic framework UiO‐67 onto a stainless‐steel wire. The prepared fiber was explored for the headspace solid‐phase microextraction of five nitrobenzene compounds from water samples before gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The effects of the extraction temperature, extraction time, sample solution...

Read More thumbnail image: Metalorganic framework UiO67coated fiber for the solidphase microextraction of nitrobenzene compounds from water

Multislice T1 ‐prepared 2D single‐shot EPI: analysis of a clinical T1 mapping method unbiased by B0 or B1 inhomogeneity

Published: Jun 22, 2016

Author(s): M. Louis Lauzon, Cheryl R. McCreary, Richard Frayne

Journal: NMR in Biomedicine

Quantitative MR imaging is as sensitive in detecting lesions as qualitative imaging, but it is potentially more specific in differentiating disease. T1 mapping in particular might help to assess acute ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease better. Thus, a rapid and robust clinical technique is vital. In 1990, Ordidge and colleagues developed the multislice T1‐prepared two‐dimensional (2D) single‐shot echo planar imaging...

Read More thumbnail image: Multislice T1 prepared 2D singleshot EPI analysis of a clinical T1 mapping method unbiased by B0 or B1 inhomogeneity

Single‐step quantitative susceptibility mapping with variational penalties

Published: Jun 22, 2016

Author(s): Itthi Chatnuntawech, Patrick McDaniel, Stephen F. Cauley, Borjan A. Gagoski, Christian Langkammer, Adrian Martin, P. Ellen Grant, Lawrence L. Wald, Kawin Setsompop, Elfar Adalsteinsson, Berkin Bilgic

Journal: NMR in Biomedicine

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) estimates the underlying tissue magnetic susceptibility from the gradient echo (GRE) phase signal through background phase removal and dipole inversion steps. Each of these steps typically requires the solution of an ill‐posed inverse problem and thus necessitates additional regularization. Recently developed single‐step QSM algorithms directly relate the unprocessed GRE phase to the unknown...

Read More thumbnail image: Singlestep quantitative susceptibility mapping with variational penalties
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