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Spring–damper equivalents of the fractional, poroelastic, and poroviscoelastic models for elastography

Published: Nov 27, 2017

Author(s): Sverre Holm

Journal: NMR in Biomedicine

In MR elastography, it is common to use an elastic model for the tissue's response in order to interpret the results properly. More complex models, such as viscoelastic, fractional viscoelastic, poroelastic, or poroviscoelastic ones, are also used. These models appear at first sight to be very different, but here it is shown that they may all be expressed in terms of elementary viscoelastic models. For a...

Read More thumbnail image: Springdamper equivalents of the fractional poroelastic and poroviscoelastic models for elastography

The structural organization of N‐methyl‐2‐pyrrolidinone in binary mixtures probed by Raman spectroscopy: Experimental and quantum chemical results

Published: Nov 26, 2017

Author(s): Wenwen Xu, Huigang Wang, Yinsong Tao, Xuming Zheng

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract The isotropic and anisotropic Raman spectra of N‐methyl‐2‐pyrrolidinone (NMP) in the binary mixture at a variety of volume fractions have been measured. The noncoincidence effect (NCE) of NMP was determined separately in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) solution and acetonitrile solution. The NCE of the ν10(C=O) stretching mode versus concentration in the NMP/acetonitrile mixtures exhibits a linear plot; however, the NCE behavior in the...

Read More thumbnail image: The structural organization of Nmethyl2pyrrolidinone in binary mixtures probed by Raman spectroscopy Experimental and quantum chemical results

A multiobjective approach in constructing a predictive model for Fischer‐Tropsch synthesis

Published: Nov 26, 2017

Author(s): Effat Dehghanian, Saman Zare Gheshlaghi

Journal: Journal of Chemometrics

Abstract Fischer‐Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an important chemical process that produces a wide range of hydrocarbons. The exact mechanism of FTS is not yet fully understood, so prediction of the FTS products distribution is a not a trivial task. So far, artificial neural network (ANN) has been successfully applied for modeling varieties of chemical processes whenever sufficient and well‐distributed training patterns are available....

Read More thumbnail image: A multiobjective approach in constructing a predictive model for FischerTropsch synthesis

Electropreconcentration‐induced local pH change

Published: Nov 24, 2017

Author(s): Honggu Chun

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Ion‐permselective nanochannel‐based sample preconcentration or electropreconcentration has been demonstrated as an effective technique for concentrating charged analytes at the interface between a micro‐ and nanochannel. The anion‐selective electropreconcentration involves extraction of hydroxide in the preconcentrated sample plug, resulting in pH decrease. We investigated the pH change in a microchannel using charged pH...

Read More thumbnail image: Electropreconcentrationinduced local pH change

Computer simulation and enantioselective capillary electrophoresis to characterize isomer mixtures of sulfated β‐cyclodextrins

Published: Nov 24, 2017

Author(s): Saara Mikkonen, Jitka Caslavska, Vlastimil Hruška, Wolfgang Thormann

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract The enantiomeric separation of methadone in the presence of multiple isomer mixtures of sulfated β‐cyclodextrin (S‐β‐CD) was studied experimentally with CZE and theoretically using computer simulation. Experiments were performed over many years with several lots of S‐β‐CD from the same manufacturer with a specified degree of substitution of 7–11. Large differences in the migration patterns were observed between certain lots...

Read More thumbnail image: Computer simulation and enantioselective capillary electrophoresis to characterize isomer mixtures of sulfated cyclodextrins

Label‐Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Membrane Proteins of Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages Infected with Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Its Attenuated Strain

Published: Nov 24, 2017

Author(s): Zehui Qu, Fei Gao, Liwei Li, Yujiao Zhang, Yifeng Jiang, Lingxue Yu, Yanjun Zhou, Hao Zheng, Wu Tong, Guoxin Li, Guangzhi Tong

Journal: PROTEOMICS

Abstract Significant differences exist between the highly pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and its attenuated pathogenic (AP) strain in the ability to infect host cells. The mechanisms by which different virulent strains invade host cells remain relatively unknown. In this study, pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) are infected with HP‐PRRSV (HuN4) and AP‐PRRSV (HuN4‐F112) for 24 h,...

Read More thumbnail image: LabelFree Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Membrane Proteins of Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages Infected with Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Its Attenuated Strain

Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two‐dimensional liquid chromatography

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Bob W.J. Pirok, Andrea F.G. Gargano, Peter J. Schoenmakers

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

Abstract Online comprehensive two‐dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two‐dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two‐dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied...

Read More thumbnail image: Optimizing separations in online comprehensive twodimensional liquid chromatography

Immobilized‐enzyme reactors integrated with capillary electrophoresis for pharmaceutical research

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Jan Schejbal, Zdeněk Glatz

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

Abstract Enzymes play an essential role in many aspects of pharmaceutical research as drug targets, drug metabolizers, enzyme drugs and more. In this specific field, enzyme assays are required to meet a number of specific requirements, such as low cost, easy automation, and high reliability. The integration of an immobilized‐enzyme reactor to capillary electrophoresis represents a unique approach to fulfilling these criteria by...

Read More thumbnail image: Immobilizedenzyme reactors integrated with capillary electrophoresis forpharmaceutical research

Adding a new separation dimension to MS and LC–MS: What is the utility of ion mobility spectrometry?

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Valentina D'Atri, Tim Causon, Oscar Hernandez‐Alba, Aline Mutabazi, Jean‐Luc Veuthey, Sarah Cianferani, Davy Guillarme

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

Abstract Ion mobility spectrometry is an analytical technique known for more than 100 years, which entails separating ions in the gas phase based on their size, shape, and charge. While ion mobility spectrometry alone can be useful for some applications (mostly security analysis for detecting certain classes of narcotics and explosives), it becomes even more powerful in combination with mass spectrometry and high‐performance liquid...

Read More thumbnail image: Adding a new separation dimension to MS and LCMS What is the utility of ion mobility spectrometry

Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy cells based on the adenine signature detected by using Raman spectroscopy

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Wei‐Yun Dai, Szetsen Lee, Yih‐Chih Hsu

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract We report the detection of oral cancer cells using Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive diagnostic tool. Gold nanoparticles, synthesized by using sodium citrate as a reducing agent, were used as surface‐enhanced Raman scattering substrates to detect human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SAS and SCC4) with fibroblasts cell lines as the control. We have observed the characteristic Raman signal of adenine at...

Read More thumbnail image: Discrimination between oral cancer and healthy cells based on the adenine signature detected by using Raman spectroscopy

Visualizing the interaction of Acanthamoeba castellanii with human retinal epithelial cells by spontaneous Raman and CARS imaging

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Abida Naemat, Faris Sinjab, Alison McDonald, Andy Downes, Alistair Elfick, Hany M. Elsheikha, Ioan Notingher

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract Improved understanding of the mechanism of nutrient's uptake can enable targeted manipulation of nutrient sensing pathways in medically important pathogens to a greater degree than is currently possible. In this context, we present the use of spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy and coherent anti‐Stokes Raman spectroscopy to visualize the time‐dependent molecular interactions between the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii...

Read More thumbnail image: Visualizing the interaction of Acanthamoeba castellanii with human retinal epithelial cells by spontaneous Raman and CARS imaging

Thermal stability of ultrathin and high dielectric ta‐C films coated with Ag nanostructures for SERS

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Bo Yan, Ke Li, Ping Gu, Zhen Li, Chaojun Tang, Fanxin Liu, Peng Zhan, Chenghua Sui, Zhenlin Wang

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract Surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) becomes one of the most desirable analytical techniques in the field of molecule detection. In some case, SERS needs to be performed at high temperature, for example, in catalytic reaction, in which dielectric film‐coated Ag nanostructures have been developed as extremely stable SERS substrates. Here, we study the thermal stability in air for a 1‐nm tetrahedral amorphous carbon...

Read More thumbnail image: Thermal stability of ultrathin and high dielectric taC films coated with Ag nanostructures for SERS

Hyperspectral Raman imaging using Bragg tunable filters of graphene and other low‐dimensional materials

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Etienne Gaufrès, Stéphane Marcet, Vincent Aymong, Nathalie Y‐Wa Tang, Alexandre Favron, Felix Thouin, Charlotte Allard, David Rioux, Nicolas Cottenye, Marc Verhaegen, Richard Martel

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Hyperspectral Raman imaging is presented as a powerful method to acquire quantitative as well as qualitative information on low‐dimensional materials. The method is, however, not widely used due to limitations of the Raman scanning instruments. Here we present a hyperspectral Raman system based on Bragg tunable filtering that is capable of global imaging with significantly reduced acquisition time and improved sensitivity compared to...

Read More thumbnail image: Hyperspectral Raman imaging using Bragg tunable filters of graphene and other lowdimensional materials

Loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as an alternative to PCR: A rapid on‐site detection of gene doping

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Olivier Salamin, Tiia Kuuranne, Martial Saugy, Nicolas Leuenberger

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Innovation in medical research has been diverted at multiple occasions to enhance human performance. The predicted great progress in gene therapy has raised some concerns regarding its misuse in the world of sports (gene doping) for several years now. Even though there is no evidence that gene doping has ever been used in sports, the continuous improvement of gene therapy techniques increases the likelihood of abuse. Therefore, since...

Read More thumbnail image: Loopmediated isothermal amplification LAMP as an alternative to PCR A rapid onsite detection of gene doping

Fatality involving ocfentanil documented by identification of metabolites

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Nathalie Allibe, Camille Richeval, Mélodie Phanithavong, Amandine Faure, Delphine Allorge, François Paysant, Françoise Stanke‐Labesque, Hélène Eysseric‐Guerin, Jean‐Michel Gaulier

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has rapidly increased over the last decade. In the last 4 years, producers increasingly appear to be targeting non‐controlled synthetic opioids, involving fentanyl derivatives such as ocfentanil (OcF). Identification of metabolites is of major importance in the context of NPS use, as it could improve the detection window in biological matrices in clinical and forensic...

Read More thumbnail image: Fatality involving ocfentanil documented by identification of metabolites

Recent contributions for improving sensitivity in chiral CE

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Antonio Luis Crego, María Mateos, Leonor Nozal

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract The flexibility and versatility of the chiral CE are unrivaled and the same instrumentation can be used to separate a diverse range of analytes, both large and small molecules, whether charged or uncharged. However, one of the disadvantages is generally thought to be the poor sensitivity of ultraviolet (UV) detection, which is the most popular among CE detectors. This review focuses on methodologies and applications...

Read More thumbnail image: Recent contributions for improving sensitivity in chiral CE

A novel and innovative hair test to determine glucocorticoid levels in racing camels for use in assessment of doping, health, and disease

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Iltaf Shah, Jody D. Haddow, Hiba A. Ibrahim, Maryam V. A. Sheikh, Fatima S.A. Alhemeiri

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract The aim of this project was to develop and validate a new test for the analysis of glucocorticoids in camel hair and to use the new test to analyse hair samples from a variety of camel breeds in sports and racing applications. These findings could be of importance when evaluating racing camels for suspected doping offenses or for injury and disease control. Camel hair samples were collected from 30 non‐racing dromedary...

Read More thumbnail image: A novel and innovative hair test to determine glucocorticoid levels in racing camels for use in assessment of doping health and disease

N‐Acetylcysteine as a chemical scavenger for sulfur mustard: New insights by mass spectrometry

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Markus Siegert, Andreas Kranawetvogl, Horst Thiermann, Harald John

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract The vesicant sulfur mustard (SM) is a banned chemical warfare agent. Although, SM has been used in combat since WWI, there is no causal therapy currently available. Accordingly, development and investigation of antidotes and scavengers targeting SM are of high clinical relevance. N‐acetylcysteine (NAC) was shown to mitigate symptoms of SM intoxications in vitro and in vivo. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of...

Read More thumbnail image: NAcetylcysteine as a chemical scavenger for sulfur mustard New insights by mass spectrometry

Pharmacokinetic properties of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH‐018 in oral fluid after inhalation

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Stefan W. Toennes, Anna Geraths, Werner Pogoda, Alexander Paulke, Cora Wunder, Eef L. Theunissen, Johannes G. Ramaekers

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract Each year, synthetic cannabinoids occur in high numbers on the illicit drug market, but data on their detectability are rarely available. A pilot study was performed to assess adverse effects of JWH‐018, which is one of the oldest and best known synthetic cannabinoids. Oral fluid has been evaluated as a specimen for drug monitoring. Six subjects inhaled smoke derived from 2 and 3 mg JWH‐018. The drug and 10 of its...

Read More thumbnail image: Pharmacokinetic properties of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH018 in oral fluid after inhalation

Closure constraint in multivariate curve resolution

Published: Nov 23, 2017

Author(s): Nematollah Omidikia, Samira Beyramysoltan, Jamile Mohammad Jafari, Elnaz Tavakkoli, Mahsa Akbari Lakeh, Masoumeh Alinaghi, Mahdiyeh Ghaffari, Somaiyeh Khodadadi Karimvand, Róbert Rajkó, Hamid Abdollahi

Journal: Journal of Chemometrics

Abstract Multivariate curve resolution techniques try to estimate physically and/or chemically meaningful profiles underlying a set of chemical or related measurements. However, the estimation of profiles is not generally unique and it is often complicated by intensity and rotational ambiguities. Constraints as further information of chemical entities can be imposed to reduce the extent of ambiguities. Not only a long list of...

Read More thumbnail image: Closure constraint in multivariate curve resolution
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