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High energy: X-rays in outer space

Date: Feb 1, 2015

Author:

X-ray polarimetry could reveal new information about high-energy astrophysical sources, such as black holes, the bright and active centres of galaxies, compact neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts. The development of the X-Calibur instrument at the heart of the work is detailed in the Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation.

Read More thumbnail image: High energy X-rays in outer space

Enzyme structure: Crystallography of ubiquitous protein

Date: Jan 15, 2015

Author: David Bradley

US scientists have used X-ray crystallography to focus on an almost ubiquitous metabolic enzyme, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, found in most life forms but with medically relevant links to diseases as disparate as diabetes and cancer.

Read More thumbnail image: Enzyme structure Crystallography of ubiquitous protein

Journal Highlight: Observation of crack propagation in glass using X-ray phase contrast imaging

Date: Jan 12, 2015

Author: spectroscopyNOW

High-speed X-ray phase contrast imaging synchronized with a Kolsky bar apparatus was utilized to investigate the cracking behavior of three types of glass after impact with a cylindrical projectile.

Read More thumbnail image: Journal Highlight Observation of crack propagation in glass using X-ray phase contrast imaging

Enterovirus laid bare: X-ray structures

Date: Jan 8, 2015

Author: David Bradley

X-ray crystallography has been by a team in the USA to obtain the precise structure of the original strain of enterovirus EV-D68 known to cause respiratory illness and polio-like symptoms in children as well as a second structure in which the virus is bound to the drug pleconaril.

Read More thumbnail image: Enterovirus laid bare X-ray structures

X-rays on Mars: CheMin diffraction

Date: Dec 15, 2014

Author: David Bradley

The X-ray diffractometer CheMin onboard the Mars rover "Curiosity" has obtained fascinating data from five soil samples on the Red Planet revealing a complex mineralogy with hints to aqueous alterations.

Read More thumbnail image: X-rays on Mars CheMin diffraction

Journal Highlight: Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: a current snapshot

Date: Dec 8, 2014

Author: spectroscopyNOW

A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of the crystallization propensity of all (nearly 2000) known complete proteomes encoded since 1953 has been performed, to define the coverage by X-ray structures of proteins and complete proteomes.

Read More thumbnail image: Journal Highlight Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures a current snapshot

Sialic shield: Immune insights from X-ray study

Date: Dec 1, 2014

Author: David Bradley

An international team has used X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to identify the key determinants of a recognition process that relies chiefly on sialic acid, a glycan that is expressed on all human cells, to let the immune system distinguish between "friend" and "foe". The findings could have important implications for immunology, vaccine research and understanding autoimmune disease.

Read More thumbnail image: Sialic shield Immune insights from X-ray study

Vanadium dioxide: In transition

Date: Nov 15, 2014

Author: David Bradley

Combining X-ray and neutron scattering data for lattice dynamics measurements with theoretical models improves our understanding of the well-known insulator vanadium dioxide and its transition to a metallic state.

Read More thumbnail image: Vanadium dioxide In transition

Journal Highlight: Exotic X-ray back-diffraction: a path toward a soft inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer

Date: Nov 10, 2014

Author: spectroscopyNOW

Soft X-ray back-diffraction, at angles near and exactly equal to 90°, has been explored with a novel high-resolution Si(220) multi-bounce back-diffraction monochromator and an ultra-thin Si(220) crystal as the sample.

Read More thumbnail image: Journal Highlight Exotic X-ray back-diffraction a path toward a soft inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer

Breast cancer clue: X-ray structure

Date: Nov 1, 2014

Author: David Bradley

New insights into the function of an enzyme related to the BRCA1 breast cancer protein have been revealed by US researchers in the first detailed working X-ray structure of a functionally engaged enzyme in the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1), a group that regulates cell development and is associated with many types of cancer.

Read More thumbnail image: Breast cancer clue X-ray structure
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